The specifics of the didactic approach in exploring the environment


For the integral and efficient realization of the instructive-educational process, a system as comprehensive as possible of its forms of development is necessary. In this system of forms of development, the lesson has an important role, constituting the main form of activity of the teacher-student relationship.
The lesson is the fundamental didactic unit, a form of the educational process through which a quantity of information is actively perceived by students, in a determined time through an intentional, systematic, self-regulating activity, causing a change in their biopsychic sphere. desired training.
For teaching-learning knowledge about the environment in the primary cycle, the basic form of organizing the instructive-educational process is the lesson. However, the specificity of this knowledge requires the use of other forms: observations in nature, in the living corner, hiking, visits, thematic excursions, activities in the specialized room, laboratory activities, practical activities in nature, in the corner of living nature and geography thematic, tourist orientations, etc .; all the fundamental types of lessons are used, but conceived in different variants determined by the specifics of this discipline and by the particularities of the students.
Without giving a rigid set of rules, the teacher can structure a constructivist lesson using a series of criteria formulated by Yager:

to engage the student’s interest in a subject based on a general concept;
ask open-ended questions to identify the student’s previous concepts about the topic and their validity and completeness;
to encourage group discussions, so that students can formulate hypotheses and imagine experiments that reconcile the pre-existing mental model with the new information;
The role of the teacher is to coordinate through questions the students to understand the topic studied. Also, after experimentation:
to organize the class in order for the students to share the ideas resulting from the group discussions,
to coordinate the discussions so as to reach a consensus on the issue in question;
to encourage students to suggest possible causes of a phenomenon or to foresee its consequences;
identify students’ ideas about a topic before exposing scientific ideas themselves;
to encourage debates among students on the topics under discussion;
allow students enough time for reflection and analysis and use the ideas generated by the student;
to encourage analysis, gathering evidence by students to support, reformulate or refute an idea in the light of new knowledge;
to use local resources as sources of information that can lead to solving the formulated problem;
to involve students in the search for information that can lead to solving concrete problems in their environment;
to extend learning beyond classroom time.
In these lessons the practical character is emphasized, the students completing schemes, lacunar drawings; can be made models from plasticine or other materials, thematic albums.
c) The variant, the use of educational means – in which the illustration alternates with the synthesis of the theoretical problems.
d) Synthesis lesson or scheme – with the training of students in systematization based on a plan.
e) Visit or excursion lesson – using independent observation to carry out the respective study; it can be organized after teaching-learning a chapter or a topic, but also for the final recapitulation.
In the recapitulation lessons you can complete schemes, thematic maps, you can solve exercises for identification, description, comparison, classification, observation of geographical elements and phenomena, you can formulate ideas, hypotheses, personal assessments, you can develop compositions , geographical puzzles, imaginary travels, etc.
The lesson of skills training
a) The classic variant with the specific stages:

organizing the conditions;
presentation of the topic, explanation, description of tasks;
updating the necessary ones;
model demonstration;
independent execution of tasks;
analysis, appreciation of works;
b) Variant in workshop, cabinet, lot – which solves certain tasks with new materials: cultivation and plant care works, maintenance works of green spaces, arrangement of the living corner of nature, museum points with different themes (ethnography, geology), designing and organizing a hike or an excursion.
c) Excursions, visits, hikes:
Conceived in these forms, environmental exploration lessons have a special formative value, aiming at basic environmental exploration skills (identification, comparison, classification of phenomena, collection and organization of materials), but also the formation of an ecological behavior.

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